European Union

EU Study Guide RMUN 2018

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As waves of isolationism and protectionism sweep through the world we live in today, we find ourselves caught in the tension between national sovereignty and supranational integration.

The European Union, at present, is undergoing a period of great instability, marked by – most notably – Brexit, the unresolved Eurozone Crisis, which portends a looming financial crisis, and its contentious immigration policy. The longevity of the supranational organisation is hence called into question, and whether the ideal of “deeper EU integration” on both economic and social fronts can be preserved against opposition from its very members.

Delegates are to consider how differing opinions on determining the future direction of the EU can find middle ground. To do so, delegates should understand the various determinants which led to the EU’s fragmentation – as its roots go deeper than the European Refugee Crisis and its resultant conflict.  


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The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) was officially launched in 2015, and was deemed as a cornerstone policy in tackling the issue of cutting greenhouse gases emissions at least cost. The ETS operates on a ‘cap and trade’ principle by putting a price on carbon and thereby giving a financial value to each tonne of emissions saved. Inspiring other major economic nations such as China to follow suit, the EU ETS is the first and has remained the world’s largest carbon markets today.

However, as the system moved on to its third phase of implementation after 2013, the EU carbon market seemed to find itself in chaos. From 2013 to 2020, 16 million tonnes of carbon permits are allocated to firms in Europe. However, it soon turned out that the EU had given away too much allowance and a massive overcapacity of the EU carbon market therefore emerged. With the carbon prices nearing zero, the ETS is now unable to keep up with targeted emission reduction. Still, simply taking out the previously allocated free allowances from the EU market is no easy task, and is facing violent objections from countries relying on carbon-intensive industries. Delegates are expected to discuss the different aspects that undermine the efficiency of ETS and hence come up with the most feasible model of reformation of the system.

Head Chair: Isabel

Co-chairs: Jinghua, Zi Han

EU_IsabelIsabel is a Y6 Humanities Scholar who strongly believes in the benefits MUN conferences provides – opportunities for delegates to practice diplomacy and critical thinking, as well as platforms for delegates to better their speaking skills. Hence, she has spent the past 3 years chairing and organising conferences, including UNASMUN, SIRC and OPMUN. Her days as a delegate have been equally eventful – her most recent award include the Best Delegate award at the 2017 Singapore Model United Nations (SMUN). When not fighting for attention during unmoderated caucuses with her petite frame, Isabel can mostly likely be found cafe-hopping, trying to make ear-pleasing sounds on the piano and drowning in Sidney and Marvell’s poems: activities she enjoys in descending order. She looks forward to meeting fresh faces at this year’s RMUN, and hopes that she IS A-BEL to create a memorable experience for all.

EU_JinghuaJinghua is a Y6 science student with History as her only humanities subject. She will be serving the role of Under Secretary-General (External Relations), and will chair the European Union. Before this, she has assumed a variety of roles in different conferences, such as notepasser, member of press corps, delegate, political actor and deputy chair. Throughout her MUN journey, she has proudly collected a wide range of awards from all categories except one. Jinghua aims to make herself approachable and supportive, and would like to encourage delegates, first-timers especially, to voice any concerns they have to her. When Jinghua is not overwhelmed by tutorials and exams, she tends to volunteer her face for self-conducted cosmetics testing, a costly and so far meaningless hobby. Nowadays, she has also successfully transformed herself from one who goes for regular urban dance classes and occasional gym workout to someone who would rather sit in front of a writing desk all day for her study guides or term essays (or at least tries to do so).

EU_ZihanZi Han is a Year 5 student in Raffles Institution’s Humanities Programme. Having begun his MUN journey two years ago at RMUN, he finds the personal connection cultivated with other delegates through and beyond council to be the primary (or sole) reason keeping him in the circuit. When he is not busy struggling to juggle a KI-HELM subject combination with student council responsibilities (which is almost never), he can be found catching up with his friends and writing poetry abstruse enough to be mistaken for sophistication. He genuinely hopes to make council a fun and fruitful experience for all. Zi Han can be contacted at