United Nations Security Council

UNSC Study Guide RMUN 2018

*This is a double-del council.

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Stretching across North Africa from the Sahara to the coastal areas of West Africa, the Sahel region is home to many African nations throughout the region. Comprising semi-arid grasslands, savannas and steppes, it has been and is undergoing an ever increasing rate of desertification, leading to numerous droughts of increasing severity. Once home to the mighty Sahelian Kingdoms, such as Ghana, Mali and Songhai, that played a key role in the Islamisation of Africa, the Transatlantic Slave trade and controlling trading routes through the Saharan desert; their strategic importance led to the region falling under French and British control during the Colonial-era.

In recent times, droughts in the region have increased in length and intensity, further contributing towards large scale famines and desertification, which would greater hinder food production and threaten water security in the long run. In order to alleviate the problem, various international efforts such as the establishment of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) have been taken to attempt to reverse the issues of water and food shortages, albeit to a limited effectiveness.

Furthermore, the aforementioned issues, compounded by inefficient administration and weak rule of law in the region have led to increased instability and violence in the region, through the emergence of numerous terrorist organisations and warlords operating in the region, namely Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Boko Haram. The threat of such terror groups are compounded by the presence of ISIS in nearby Libya, furthering threatening peace and stability in the region. Actions by such groups have led to the deaths of many, and the displacement of many more. Though action has been taken by the international community against these groups in the form of militaristic intervention, they remain ineffective in truly eradicating such groups due to the underlying social, economic and climatic pressure which drives instability in the region.

Throughout the conference, delegates are to come up with solutions and frameworks to tackle the numerous problems which plague the region. Delegates are reminded of the focus of the UNSC to deal primarily with security measures, but should also consider the fact that perhaps, climatic conditions are what drives conflict in the region. In such a case, which should be addressed and resolved first, eradicating the threat of terror organisations in the region, or bringing water and food security to the region?

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With a well established world order in place which a majority of countries adhere to and act within, world peace virtually appears to be within grasp. Unfortunately though, a select few countries currently choose to operate outside of this geopolitical structure, breaking boundaries agreed upon by other nations and as a result, their actions threaten the stability of the world.

By and large, rogue states are underdeveloped countries which lack the capacity to mass produce sophisticated weapons , so illicit arms trafficking is therefore their only route to acquiring a significant military capacity. The trade in small arms, in particular, is generally regarded as being the root cause of conflicts in Africa and the Middle East, where the abundance of weapons has led to AK-47 assault rifles costing as little as $6 dollars, and millions of small arms falling into the hands of militias, terror groups, insurgents and civilians. These illicit sales of arms has been the main source of funding for further illegal activities, such as North Korea’s nuclear fissile production.

Throughout the conference, delegates are expected to come up with a working definition on rogue states as well as suggest measures that the UNSC can implement to combat both illicit arms imports in and exports out of rogue states.

 Head Chair: Justin

Co-chairs: Zi Jian, Norika

UNSC_JustinJustin is a Year 6 Science student currently struggling with the BCME workload, who attempts to compensate for his neglect of the humanities by MUNning semi-regularly and in the process, burdening himself with more commitments! During his rapidly diminishing free time, he catches up on English and Korean shows as well as does community service in an escapist attempt to relieve himself from the dreariness of everyday life. Having begun his MUN journey in Year 4 during 2016, he realises that he is an elderly individual in the circuit already and thus hopes to retire at RMUN 2018. As such, he hopes to make his final MUN experience a fun and enjoyable experience not only for himself, but also for all delegates. He hopes that throughout the course of the conference, delegates would have an enriching and educational time, regardless of their experience level with MUN and the intricacies of this unique council. He looks forward to fruitful and robust debate over the 3 days of the conference. He can be contacted at justin.ngwh@gmail.com

UNSC_ZiJianA Year 6 PCME student who is already juggling way too many commitments, Zi Jian was initially unsure as to why he had signed up to chair RMUN 2018 but has since convinced himself that it will be a fitting and fulfilling end to his journey in the MUN circuit. What he is still baffled about, however, is the level of formality of the other biographies on this feed. Despite serving as a scout for 6 years and taking up H3 Game Theory, he still has no game and is unable to tie the knot, facts that have not gone unnoticed by the entirety of his CCA. With UNSC being a specialised council that requires subtlety and skill, he hopes that delegates will not be daunted by the council, and will strive to make council debate as smooth and enriching as possible for newcomers and veterans alike. Should you require someone to rant about American politics with, or rave to about the golden age of television, he can be contacted at zijian345@gmail.com.

UNSC_NorikaNorika is a Y5 student in Raffles Institution’s Humanities Programme. As a self-proclaimed Literature and KI nerd, she is proud to be the only student in her batch who does not take Math. Besides MUNning, Norika is also a member of Raffles Street Dance, which means that if you happen to see her limping into council, there is a 90% chance she sprained her ankle (again) attempting to survive her new CCA (street dance PT is no joke). Having attended 13 conferences since the start of her MUN journey two years ago, she is close to becoming a salt mine, and is eternally grateful for the things that keep her sane, such as her cat, oversized sweaters, and mochi (Norika really, really likes mochi). She hopes to make RMUN 2018 a memorable and fulfilling experience for all, and can be contacted at norika.ngwq@gmail.com.