*This is a double-del council.
Stretching across North Africa from the Sahara to the coastal areas of West Africa, the Sahel region is home to many African nations throughout the region. Comprising semi-arid grasslands, savannas and steppes, it has been and is undergoing an ever increasing rate of desertification, leading to numerous droughts of increasing severity. Once home to the mighty Sahelian Kingdoms, such as Ghana, Mali and Songhai, that played a key role in the Islamisation of Africa, the Transatlantic Slave trade and controlling trading routes through the Saharan desert; their strategic importance led to the region falling under French and British control during the Colonial-era.
In recent times, droughts in the region have increased in length and intensity, further contributing towards large scale famines and desertification, which would greater hinder food production and threaten water security in the long run. In order to alleviate the problem, various international efforts such as the establishment of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) have been taken to attempt to reverse the issues of water and food shortages, albeit to a limited effectiveness.
Furthermore, the aforementioned issues, compounded by inefficient administration and weak rule of law in the region have led to increased instability and violence in the region, through the emergence of numerous terrorist organisations and warlords operating in the region, namely Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Boko Haram. The threat of such terror groups are compounded by the presence of ISIS in nearby Libya, furthering threatening peace and stability in the region. Actions by such groups have led to the deaths of many, and the displacement of many more. Though action has been taken by the international community against these groups in the form of militaristic intervention, they remain ineffective in truly eradicating such groups due to the underlying social, economic and climatic pressure which drives instability in the region.
Throughout the conference, delegates are to come up with solutions and frameworks to tackle the numerous problems which plague the region. Delegates are reminded of the focus of the UNSC to deal primarily with security measures, but should also consider the fact that perhaps, climatic conditions are what drives conflict in the region. In such a case, which should be addressed and resolved first, eradicating the threat of terror organisations in the region, or bringing water and food security to the region?
To be updated soon!
To be updated soon!